Fennel - (Foeniculum vulgare - Umbelliferae)
Fennel is native to southern Europe, particularly around the Mediterranean.
It has become naturalized in many other non-tropical parts of the world - Japan, Persia, India
and the USA - growing mostly beside the sea. It was introduced to northern Europe by the Romans,
and to the USA by early European settlers. It is a hardy perennial, with a haze of blue-green feathery leaves,
and umbels of yellow flowers followed by seeds.
The essential oil:
Although all parts of the plant are aromatic, it is the seeds which are crushed and distilled for the essential oil.
This is usually colourless, sometimes a very pale yellow. It has a very characteristic and strong aroma reminiscent of anise, but which is softer and more camphor-like.
The principal constituents: Anethol, up to 60 per cent; others are anisic aldehyde, camphene, d-fenchone, dipentene, estragol, fenone, phellandrene and pinene.
Antispasmodic neuromuscular psycho-active.
Aperitif, digestive, laxative, diuretic.
General tonic (low dose).
Mimetic estrogen, emmenagogue, galactogen (increases milk production).
Irregular periods, menstrual pain, menopause and pre-menopausal.
Slow digestion, indigestion, spastic colitis, aerophagia, flatulence, parasites, hiccups.
Asthma, Lung congestion, Spastic cough.
In massage, (diluted in vegetable oil and / or other essential oils) on the abdomen for dyspepsia in the lower abdomen for menstrual disorders and for localized cellulite.
Juniper Berry EO, Lemon EO, Geranium EO.
At high doses, may be convulsive.
.Not recommended for young children (except localized and temporary employment), and during pregnancy (except localized and temporary employment)
.Forbidden orally in children and pregnant women. Forbidden by skin on the abdominal wall in pregnant women.
Forbidden for people suffering from cancerous diseases estrogen-dependent
Keep out of reach of children. Some oils are prohibited to pregnant women and children. Keep away from flame.